"Gaslighting is a deliberate manipulation usually between two people and usually in a fairly close relationship. Its conceptualized as long-term, gradual, and it can have the individual who's the victim of gaslighting having trouble determining what's true from what's false, questioning reality, questioning morality (right from wrong), and questioning sanity. This is done through lying dismissing one's perception or belief as invalid, isolation, and preventing access to information that we contradict what the gaslighter wants the individual to believe.
"The goal of the manipulation strategy is to shake confidence, lower self-esteem, and make an individual dependent on another individual.
"There is a relationship between gaslighting and narcissism. Almost all the time when we see the term gaslighting, we see some reference to narcissism, pathological narcissism, grandiose or vulnerable narcissism, or narcissistic personality disorder. Manipulation is a key component of narcissism and specifically exploiting individuals interpersonally, but you could also make an argument it has a fairly close relationship to psychopathy. Psychopathy also has a manipulation component, although often times it's considered less personal than what we would see with narcissism. It's important to note here that anybody can engage in the activity of gaslighting. Somebody doesn't have to be psychopathic, sociopathic, they don't have to have an antisocial personality disorder, or narcissistic personality disorder, or even be narcissistic.
"It's just this term gaslighting has become associated with narcissism, it's not that it has to be committed by an individual who is narcissistic. Another important point here about gaslighting is it's not something you really find in the scientific literature. The term gaslighting really isn't a scientific term, it's more of a colloquial term."